IBPS AFO 2023 Mains Question and solution
if you remember any question comment below we will add and give answers to that in this post
GnRH secreted from?
GnRH (Gonadotropin-releasing hormone) is a hormone that is secreted by the hypothalamus, a region of the brain located just above the brainstem. The hypothalamus controls various functions of the body including body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, and the release of other hormones. GnRH is released in a pulsatile manner, meaning that it is released in intermittent bursts rather than a steady stream. This pulsatile release of GnRH is important for the normal functioning of the reproductive system, as it stimulates the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary gland, which in turn regulate the activity of the ovaries in females and the testes in males.
Fin fishes largest grown in world ?
Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), and Tuna (Thunnus spp) are also some of the largest fish species in the world.
Grass carp is a freshwater fish species that can grow up to 4 meters in length and weigh up to 100 kg. They are native to Asia and are widely cultured in many countries as a food fish.
Silver carp is a species of freshwater fish that can grow up to 4 meters in length and weigh up to 110 kg. They are also native to Asia and are widely farmed for food.
Tuna is a saltwater fish species that can grow up to 4 meters in length and weigh up to 684 kg. They are found in warm waters around the world and are a popular food fish. Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) is considered to be one of the largest tuna species and can grow up to 3 meters in length and weigh up to 684 kg.
Old man’s cactus botanical name?
The Old man’s cactus, also known as the “Old man cactus” or “Old man of Mexico” botanical name is Cephalocereus senilis. It is a species of cactus that is native to Mexico. It is known for its distinctive white hair-like fibers that cover the stem and the areolas, giving it the appearance of an old man’s white hair. It’s a slow-growing cactus and can reach up to 6 m in height, it’s usually found in rocky terrain.
Soft rot in fruits ?
soft rot is a type of decay that affects fruits and vegetables, causing them to become soft, slimy and eventually rot. It is caused by a group of bacteria known as soft rot erwinias, the most common of which is Erwinia carotovora. These bacteria can infect fruits and vegetables through wounds or natural openings, such as the stem end of a tomato or the blossom end of a pepper. Once inside the fruit, the bacteria release enzymes that break down the cell walls, causing the fruit to soften and rot.
Symptoms of soft rot include:
Softening of the fruit
Formation of slimy liquid
Development of a foul odor
Spread of the decay to other parts of the fruit
Soft rot can spread quickly in storage and packing facilities, as well as in the field. To prevent the spread of soft rot, it is important to handle fruits and vegetables gently to avoid causing wounds, and to practice good sanitation in storage and packing facilities. If soft rot is detected, affected fruits should be removed and destroyed to prevent the spread of the bacteria.
Silk filament is unwinded by a process called ?
The process of unwinding the silk filament from the cocoon is called reeling. Reeling is the process of removing the silk fibers from the cocoon by unwinding the cocoon’s filament. It is typically done by hand using a tool called a reel. The silk filament is unwound from the cocoon by winding it onto a reel, which is a spindle with a rotating handle. The cocoon is held in one hand, and the other hand is used to turn the reel. As the reel turns, the silk filament is unwound from the cocoon, and the silk fibers are collected on the reel in the form of a thread.
Is Drak brown matter resistant to degradation ?
Dark brown matter (DBM) is a type of humus that is highly resistant to degradation. It is a result of the accumulation of partially decomposed plant and animal material that has been protected from further decomposition by environmental factors such as low oxygen levels, high acidity, or low temperatures. DBM is characterized by its dark brown color and its high content of humic acids, which give it its resistance to degradation.
DBM is typically found in wetlands, peatlands, and other environments where the conditions are not favorable for decomposition. It can also be found in soils with high clay content, which can slow down the rate of decomposition. This type of humus is important for soil fertility, as it contributes to soil structure, water-holding capacity, and nutrient cycling.
However, DBM is not a desirable feature for most of the agricultural land, it is not productive and it’s not easy to cultivate. DBM is also a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, as the organic matter in DBM is not fully decomposed and releases carbon dioxide and methane when it is disturbed or drained.
Propagation from axils of upper leafs?
Runner propagation is a method of vegetative reproduction, it is a way of propagating plants by rooting the runners or stolons that the plant produces. Runners are slender, horizontal stems that grow out from the base of the parent plant. They grow along the surface of the soil and produce new plants at the end. A runner is also known as a “stolon”.
This method of propagation is commonly used for plants such as strawberries, mint, and creeping phlox. It is a simple and efficient way of propagating plants, as the new plants that form from the runners are genetically identical to the parent plant.
The new plants formed from the runners are usually detached from the parent plant when they have developed roots of their own. Runners can also be pinned down to the soil surface and covered with a rooting medium, such as soil, sand, or water. Once the new plants begin to grow, they can be transplanted into pots or a garden bed.
Coppicing of longer duration and either natural or artificial?
Coppicing is a traditional method of woodland management in which they regularly cut trees down to near ground level, promoting the growth of new shoots. The duration of coppicing can vary, with some coppice cycles lasting for several decades or even centuries, while others may be shorter. Coppicing can be done naturally, with the trees regenerating on their own, or artificially, through the use of specific tree species and planting methods. The coppiced wood is used for various purposes like charcoal, poles, and fencing.
Process of rice conservative in vitamins ?
Rice is a staple food for many people around the world, but it is not known for being a particularly rich source of vitamins. However, there are a few ways that the vitamin content of rice can be preserved during the processing and cooking stages:
Parboiling: This method involves partially boiling rice in its husk, which helps to preserve some of the vitamins and minerals found in the bran layer of the grain.
Enrichment: we can enrich Rice with vitamins and minerals during the milling process, by adding them back into the grain after the bran has been removed.
Fortification: In some countries, rice is fortified with vitamins and minerals during the milling process as a public health measure.
Cooking methods: Cooking rice in a way that preserves the vitamin content, such as steaming or microwaving, rather than boiling or frying.
Storage: Proper storage of rice can help to preserve its vitamin content. Rice should be stored in an airtight container, away from light and heat, to prevent vitamin loss.
It’s important to note that while these methods can help to preserve some of the vitamins and minerals found in rice, they will not make it a significant source of vitamins. Eating a varied diet with a variety of fruits and vegetables is the best way to ensure an adequate intake of vitamins and other essential nutrients.
Power generated at engine eliminates friction ?
Indicated Horsepower (IHP) is a measure of the power output of an engine, typically used for internal combustion engines. It is calculated based on the pressure and volume of the combustion gases in the engine’s cylinders. It is called indicated because it is measured at the engine’s cylinders, before losses due to friction, exhaust, and other factors.
Eliminating friction in an engine can increase the IHP by reducing the amount of power lost to friction. This results in a more efficient engine that is able to convert more of the fuel’s energy into useful power. By reducing friction in an engine, more power can be generated and the engine’s efficiency can be improved. This can lead to better fuel economy, lower emissions, and increase the life of the engine.
It is important to note that while reducing friction can improve IHP, it is not the only factor that affects it. Other factors such as combustion efficiency, air intake and exhaust efficiency, and engine design also play a role in determining the IHP of an engine. Additionally, it is important to note that the actual power output of an engine, measured at the crankshaft or at the wheels, is lower than the IHP due to losses through the transmission, exhaust, and other components.
Himalayas Breed of goat ?
The Himalayas are home to a number of different breeds of goats. Some of the most notable breeds include:
- Chegu: This breed is found in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh and is known for its high milk production.
- Gaddi: This breed is found in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh and is known for its hardiness and ability to thrive in the harsh mountain environment.
- Jhakrana: This breed is found in the Indian state of Uttarakhand and is known for its high milk production and adaptability to different environments.
- Lohi: This breed is found in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh and is known for its high meat production and hardiness.
- Malabari: This breed is found in the Indian state of Uttarakhand and is known for its high milk production and adaptability to different environments.
- Siri: This breed is found in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh and is known for its hardiness and ability to thrive in the harsh mountain environment.
- Thang: This breed is found in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir and is known for its high meat production and hardiness.
All of these breeds have evolved to survive in the harsh mountain environment of the Himalayas and are known for their hardiness and ability to thrive in difficult conditions. They are well adapted to the cold and snowy climate, and are able to survive on sparse grazing land.
Which of the following board doest not come under GOI? a.Rubber board b.Tobacco board c.Spices board d.Cardamom board
d. Cardamom board does not come under the Government of India (GOI).
The Rubber Board, Spices Board, and Tobacco Board are all government organizations that come under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India. They are responsible for the development, promotion and regulation of the respective crops. However, Cardamom board is not a government organization but private one. It works to promote and support the growth and development of the cardamom industry in India and other countries.
Maize planted in monsoon and winter on? A) Flat bed B) Furrows C) Zero tillage D) Side of ridges
Maize is typically planted in the summer season, specifically between May and July. Planting in monsoon season is not suitable as the heavy rainfall and flooded field may damage the crop. Winter planting of maize is also not a common practice as maize is a warm-season crop and it may not be able to survive low temperature during winter.
- Flat bed : This method is best suited for areas with high rainfall, as it allows for proper drainage.
- Furrows: This method is typically used in areas with low rainfall, as it allows for better water retention and conservation.
- Zero tillage: This method is becoming increasingly popular as it helps to preserve soil structure, reduce erosion, and improve water conservation.
- Side of ridges: This method is used to plant maize on the side of ridges, which can be used to help drainage and prevent waterlogging.
It is important to note that the choice of planting method will depend on the specific conditions of the field, including soil type, rainfall, and water availability. Additionally, farmers should consider the suitability of the method for the specific crop and the local climate, as well as the availability of equipment and labor.
Cultivation of crops, rearing livestock, fishes for satisfying needs of a family ?
Homestead agroforestry is a type of land-use system that combines the production of food crops, trees, and other plants on the same small piece of land around a homestead or farmstead. The goal of homestead agroforestry is to increase food security and income, while also improving the ecological health and resilience of the land.
There are several different types of homestead agroforestry systems, including:
Alley cropping: This involves planting rows of trees and food crops in alternating strips. The trees can provide shade and wind protection for the food crops, as well as improve soil fertility and water retention.
Silvopasture: This involves integrating trees and grazing animals on the same piece of land. The trees provide shade and shelter for the animals, and the animals can help to control weeds and improve soil fertility through their manure.
Homegarden: This is a type of agroforestry system in which a wide variety of plants are grown in close proximity to the home, including food crops, fruit trees, medicinal plants, and other species.
Windbreak: This type of agroforestry system involves planting rows of trees around the perimeter of a farm or homestead to protect crops and other plants from strong winds.
Homestead agroforestry systems can provide many benefits, such as increasing food security and income, improving soil health and water retention, and enhancing biodiversity. However, it’s also important to consider the potential negative impacts of homestead agroforestry systems such as the potential for overuse of resources, and the need for proper management.
Silkworm excretory organs ?
Silkworms, also known as silk moths or Bombyx mori, are the larval stage of the silk moth. They are used in the production of silk, which is made from the cocoons they spin around themselves.
Silkworms have several excretory organs that are responsible for removing waste products from their body. These include:
- Malpighian tubules: These are long, thin tubes that are located near the silkworm’s hindgut. They remove waste products such as nitrogenous compounds and other toxins from the hemolymph (the silkworm’s equivalent of blood) and excrete them as a liquid waste.
- Proventriculus: This is a small glandular organ located near the silkworm’s foregut. It secretes a fluid that helps to neutralize the acidity of the food in the silkworm’s stomach, and also helps to break down food.
- Anal papillae: These are small, pointed structures located near the silkworm’s anus. They help to control the passage of waste products out of the silkworm’s body.
- Anus: The silkworm’s anus is located at the end of its digestive tract and is the final point of excretion.
The silkworm’s excretory organs help to remove waste products from its body, which are necessary to maintain a healthy environment for growth and development.
Little leaf of brinjal transmitted by ?
Little leaf of brinjal is transmitted by a leaf hopper. The disease is caused by a phytoplasma, a type of bacteria that infects the plant’s phloem, the tissue that carries nutrients and water. The leaf hopper acts as a vector, transmitting the phytoplasma from infected to healthy plants as it feeds on the sap. The disease causes stunted growth and reduced yields, and can lead to significant losses for farmers. Control measures include reducing the populations of leaf hoppers and using resistant varieties of brinjal.
Ufra disease, caused by the rice stem ?
Ufra disease is a serious problem for deep-water rice cultivation, causing significant yield losses. It is caused by the rice stem nematode Ditylenchus angustus, which is a parasitic worm that infects the stems of the rice plant. The nematode feeds on the plant’s sap, causing the stems to become stunted and weakened, making the plant more susceptible to lodging (falling over) and leading to reduced yields. The disease is more severe in areas with high humidity and poor drainage, and can spread rapidly in flooded fields. Control measures include using resistant varieties, crop rotation, and improving field drainage. Chemical treatments are also available, but they are not always effective and can have negative impacts on the environment.
Red Delicious is a variety of apple that is known for its sweet and crisp flesh, with a distinctive five-point star shape on the bottom. The apples are typically bright red with a yellow-green background and have a tough, shiny skin. They are popular for snacking and are often used in baking and cooking as well.
Acid lime propagated by ?
seed,Seedlings are true to type and resistant to diseases. Propagation by seedling is recommended.
Sal Botanical name: Shorea robusta
Viral disease of silkworm:
Glasserie is a viral disease of silkworms that can cause significant losses in silk production. The disease is caused by a type of baculovirus and is highly contagious, spreading quickly from infected to healthy silkworms. Symptoms of Glasserie include a reduction in silk production, abnormal cocoon formation, and death of the larvae. Prevention and control of the disease typically involve the use of disease-free pupae and eggs, quarantine measures, and proper sanitation and hygiene practices in the silkworm rearing environment.
Length of estrus cycle of sheep
The estrus cycle of sheep typically lasts between 14 to 19 days. The estrus cycle is the period of time in which the female sheep is sexually receptive and can become pregnant. It is characterized by a series of hormonal changes that cause the ovaries to release an egg (ovulation), the uterus to become receptive to sperm, and the female to show signs of sexual behavior, such as restlessness, interest in the males, and the production of mucus. The length of the estrus cycle in sheep can vary depending on factors such as breed, age, and nutritional status.
Woody trees and shrubs are grown in salt water is called
Mangroves are woody trees and shrubs that are specifically adapted to grow in saltwater environments, such as tidal estuaries, mangrove swamps, and tidal mudflats. Mangroves are able to tolerate the high salt levels in their environment by excreting excess salt through their leaves and roots and by developing specialized root structures that allow them to filter out the salt from their water supply. They are important habitats for many species of wildlife, including fish, crustaceans, and birds, and play a crucial role in protecting coastlines from erosion and storm surges. Additionally, mangroves serve as important carbon sinks and contribute to global efforts to mitigate climate change.
Cross involving two pairs of alleles, each of which regulates different characters is known as
A dihybrid cross is a type of genetic cross that involves two pairs of alleles, each of which regulates a different character. In this type of cross, the two characters are independent of each other, meaning that the inheritance of one character does not affect the inheritance of the other. The goal of a dihybrid cross is to determine the proportion of offspring that display each possible combination of the two characters, which can be used to determine the pattern of inheritance of the alleles involved. The results of a dihybrid cross can be analyzed using Punnett squares and can provide important information about the genetic basis of inheritance and the relationship between different genes.
The sum of lignin and polysaccharides that are not digested by endogenous secretion of digestive tract
Crude fiber is a measure of the indigestible portion of a feedstuff, and is typically defined as the sum of lignin and polysaccharides that are not digested by the endogenous secretion of the digestive tract. Crude fiber is a useful measure of the amount of roughage in a feedstuff and is important for determining the energy and nutrient content of a feed. It also plays a role in promoting healthy digestion in animals, as it helps maintain digestive motility and reduces the risk of digestive disorders. The crude fiber content of a feedstuff can be determined by various methods, including acid-detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral-detergent fiber (NDF) analysis. These methods are widely used in animal nutrition and feed research to evaluate the quality of different feedstuffs.
In a combine harvestor, the ratio of reel peripheral speed to forward speed (reel speed index) should normally be in the range of?
The reel speed index of a combine harvester refers to the ratio of the peripheral speed of the reel (the rotating part of the harvester that brings the crop towards the threshing and separating parts of the machine) to the forward speed of the machine. A reel speed index in the range of 1.25 to 1.50 is considered normal for most combine harvesters and is a good starting point for optimizing harvest efficiency and grain quality. However, the optimal reel speed index can vary depending on the specific crop and harvest conditions, as well as the type and size of the combine harvester. Some factors that can affect the reel speed index include the type and size of the crop, the height of the crop, the moisture content of the crop, and the speed and direction of wind. In general, adjusting the reel speed index is one of the key factors in fine-tuning the performance of a combine harvester and ensuring that the crop is harvested efficiently and with minimal loss of grain quality.
Under ACABC scheme, Ceiling of project cost for subsidy up to ?
The Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA), which operates under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry in India, runs a scheme called the Assistance to States for Developing Export-Oriented Units and Export-Linked Infrastructure Schemes (ACABC). Under this scheme, the ceiling for project cost for subsidy for a group project is up to INR 100 lakhs (approximately 1.5 million USD). The aim of the ACABC scheme is to promote and develop the export of agricultural and processed food products by providing financial assistance to eligible groups and individuals for setting up new export-oriented units, expanding existing units, and upgrading export infrastructure. The subsidy is provided in the form of a capital investment subsidy and is calculated as a percentage of the eligible project cost. The exact percentage of subsidy varies depending on the type of project, location, and other factors.
Process of giving birth of new baby of rabbit is known as kindling
which agency collects & disiminate imp information on food production cons.& distribute of food
The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations collects and disseminates information on food production, consumption, and distribution. The organization’s main aim is to eradicate hunger, malnutrition, and poverty and to make agriculture, forestry, and fisheries more productive and sustainable. FAO provides data, analysis, and policy advice to support countries in their efforts to develop more sustainable and efficient food systems. Additionally, FAO supports food security and nutrition projects and initiatives, as well as disaster response and recovery efforts related to food and agriculture.
Secondary tillage which pulverized & smoothness to the soil surface while preparing seed bed
Harrowing is a type of secondary tillage tool used to create a smooth seed bed surface by pulverizing the soil and removing clumps or large particles. Harrows are designed with a series of tines or teeth that dig into the soil, break up clumps and level the ground. Harrowing is usually performed after primary tillage operations like plowing or disking, to help create a smooth seed bed for planting crops.
Long day plant require more than the critical duration of light to flower ?
Long-day plants are those that require more than the critical duration of light to initiate flowering. The critical duration of light is the minimum amount of light needed to trigger the flowering response in a particular species. In long-day plants, this critical duration is usually more than 14-16 hours. These plants typically flower in the spring or summer when days are longer and night shorter. Examples of long-day plants include spinach, lettuce, and barley.
Amide fertilizers – Urea
Amide fertilizers are nitrogen-based fertilizers in the form of amides, which are compounds formed by the reaction of an amine with a carboxylic acid. They are used to supply nitrogen to crops, which is essential for the growth and development of plants. Amide fertilizers are typically applied in the form of urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) or ammonium sulfate (AMS). They are characterized by high nitrogen content, low solubility, and slow release, making them suitable for use in fertilization programs for a variety of crops. They also help to reduce nitrate leaching into groundwater, which can help to minimize environmental impact.
Baby corn is ready for harvest after ?
Baby corn is a variety of corn that is harvested before the kernels mature, while the cob is still small and tender. It is grown for its tender cob, which is used as a vegetable in various cuisines. The plants are usually sown directly in the field or in seedbeds, and after 50-60 days the baby corn cobs are harvested by hand. The cobs are then trimmed, cleaned, and packaged for sale. Because baby corn is harvested young, it has a delicate, sweet flavor and tender texture.
Somaclonal variation is variation among the tissues or plants derived from the In-vitro somatic cell culture i.e. Callus and suspension culture
Government agencies is referred as KCS (Kisan Customer Service) in the communication system of extension education
Degreening is the process of decomposing green pigments in fruits usually by applying ethylene or other similar metabolic inducer to give a fruit its characteristic color.
Onion Germination percent for certified seed
Onion Germination percentage of 70% is considered good for certified seed. The germination rate indicates the proportion of seeds that are able to sprout and grow into healthy plants, and a 70% rate is considered to be within an acceptable range for high-quality seed. The actual rate may vary depending on factors such as seed quality, storage conditions, and the environment in which the seed is planted.
Empty plastic drum used in cage culture is ?
Empty plastic drums are often used in cage culture for aquaculture purposes, and they typically float. The drums provide a stable floating platform for the cage culture system, and their buoyancy helps to keep the cages stable and in place. The plastic material is lightweight and durable, making it suitable for use in aquatic environments.
Removal of stamens or anthers or killing the pollen of a flower without the female reproductive organ is known as
Emasculation is the process of removing or killing the male reproductive organs (stamens and anthers) of a flower without damaging the female reproductive organs. This is often done in horticulture to produce seedless or parthenocarpic (seedless) fruits, or to ensure cross-pollination in hybrid plant breeding. The removal of the male reproductive organs prevents self-fertilization and allows the plant to be cross-pollinated with a different variety, leading to hybridization and the development of desired traits.
Q=CIA Equation c ?
In the equation Q = CIA, “C” represents the discharge coefficient, “I” represents the flow rate, “A” represents the cross-sectional area, and “Q” represents the volumetric flow rate. The discharge coefficient is a dimensionless number that accounts for any losses or inefficiencies in the flow system and can vary between 0 and 1, with a value of 1 representing ideal, frictionless flow. The volumetric flow rate is the volume of fluid that passes through a given area per unit time.
Chondricthyes and Osteichthyes are two groups of fish, characterized by the type of skeleton they have.
Chondricthyes, also known as cartilaginous fish, have skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone. This group includes species such as sharks, rays, and skates.
Osteichthyes, also known as bony fish, have skeletons made of bone. This group includes the majority of fish species, including bass, salmon, and goldfish.
Gnathostoma is a term used to describe the group of vertebrates that have a jaw, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.